Modern Myth: Overpopulation

Modern Myths is a new series of articles that will deconstruct popular myths that are informed by modernity. This series will first present the myth, analyze and dismantle it from a lens of tradition, and ultimately, offer alternatives in viewing or ameliorating the legitimate challenges associated with the myth. We hope the “Modern Myths” series will enable you to not only question your understanding of these topics, but also how you arrived at your previous understanding of these myths.

The Myth

Overpopulation is a prominent Western modern myth that remains largely unchallenged. Liberals, environmentalists, and xenophobes alike assert that the human population is out-growing the “carrying capacity” of the Earth [1][2][3][4]. Such individuals attribute global warming, mass pollution, deterioration of ecosystems, emission of fossil fuels, etc. to the growth of the global human population [5]. However, such claims are emblematic of the racist, capitalist, and elitist attitudes nurtured by Western society.

Over-consumption not Overpopulation

The targets of Overpopulation rhetoric are people from “developing nations,” where, due to government and corporate corruption, and the lingering effects of colonialism, many suffer from abject poverty [6]. Overpopulation discourse rarely centers Western (US, Canada, Israel, Australia and Europe) and Westernized (like Japan and South Korea) nations as being part of the problem, instead it zeroes in on how birth rates in Asian and African countries are leading mankind down a road of imminent disaster [7] [8]. For many Westerners, a poor family of nine in Niger will contribute to the demise of the Earth more than ONE American, whose energy consumption on average is equivalent to the consumption of over hundreds of people in some countries. Yet, today 1% of the world’s population controls over half of the world’s wealth; the next 9% occupy 40% of the world’s wealth. This top 10% of the world, who are overwhelmingly based in Western and Westernized nations, make up 90% of the global economy [9]. Such monopolization of wealth, by proxy, yields the monopolization of access, distribution, and hoarding of the world’s resources.

It is irrational that the blame for why some are forced to eat food made from literal garbage is attributed to their having big families and not to today’s historically unprecedented wealth and resource inequality [10]. When Americans waste over 50% of food produce, it’s hard to believe that immense poverty in low-income countries is a result of overpopulation and not due to Western over-consumption and resource hoarding [11][12]. Instead of accepting responsibility for the wastefulness that modernist hedonism produces and for the maintenance of transnational corporatism as the primary economic system by which the global economy operates, culpability is shifted to the ones who suffer the most because of our indiscretions.

Why it’s Racist

The correlation between poverty and race is also significant. It is no coincidence that claims of overpopulation in African and Asian countries are coupled with concern for the diminishing replacement rates of Western/Westernized nations. As people elsewhere are told to breed less, people domestically are told to breed more to preserve national identities and maintain an adequate population size [13]. These blatant hypocrisies reveal how morally misguided overpopulation sentiments are and how they have a clear progression that leads to state-employed population control. China’s one child policy, which yielded a massive gender gap, should serve as a reminder of why such rhetoric must be abandoned [14]. The possibility of marginalized populations being subject to genocide, eugenics, and sterilization to “curb overpopulation” isn’t far-fetched, when the US, Israel, and Canada, already engage in forced sterilization [15][16][17]. In fact, such population control is happening right now in Burma with the fear of overpopulation being used to justify such genocidal policies [18]. 

How it Values Wealth over Motherhood

The overpopulation myth emboldens asinine assertions, like the statement made by French President Emmanuel Macron in which he transferred culpability the French and their fellow colonizing allies have for the state of Africa onto African women having too many children. Such arguments yield presumptuous declarations about women and reproduction rights, namely that women would rather be wealthy than have a large family. Modernity’s eradication of the spiritual makes it difficult for some to fathom why anyone would choose having a large family over money. The spiritual and emotional satisfaction of a family is overlooked, as it is not something material that can be measured. Whereas, spiritual sustenance is treated as if it is a placebo with no intrinsic value of its own. The modernist presumes that if the choice is between guaranteed material wealth, or an immaterial spiritual fulfillment, why would anyone choose the immaterial over the material? However, it’d be a low view of humanity to assume that anyone would accept a proposition wherein they were offered millions in exchange for a child of theirs to never have existed. Yet, this is essentially the rationalization that liberals and environmentalists utilize on this issue.

Unfortunately, this chauvinistic belief is also common amongst those who oppose the term overpopulation, arguing, “If we frame it in terms of women’s reproductive rights instead of focusing on population growth, we avoid all moral and ethical concerns that come with overpopulation” [19]. To them, it’s the solution to the problem is to promote activists and government programs that provide increased access to birth control for women. However, as articulated in this exchange between a Nigerian activist and a BBC anchor, Western manipulation promotes birth control in many of these developing nations, when there often isn’t a local demand for it, while ignoring the stated needs of the people in question [20].

Taking Responsibility

Overpopulation rhetoric makes those who have had the least impact on the deteriorating condition of the Earth most culpable. In the quest to preserve the excessive consumerism of the West (as justified by the modernist notion of “seeking pleasure so long as it harms no one”), we are actively putting the world at risk and absolving ourselves of any responsibility. Such is the primordial state of the “modern” human. World leaders waste billions on paintings, military expansionism, and taller skyscrapers, while children in Haiti eat mud cakes as a delicacy. It is nonsensical to presume that having fewer children is the solution to abject poverty. Our self-indulgence has a price, and that price will be paid when God asks us about what we did with the comfort and wealth He blessed us with. We won’t be able to escape responsibility then.



About the author: Hossam is a founding member of IMJ (Islamic Movement for Justice), an organization that is dedicated to reviving political Islam within the Muslim American consciousness. You can follow him on Twitter here.

4 thoughts on “Modern Myth: Overpopulation

  1. This article is full of terrible misinformation conflating racism and overpopulation when they are two different things. Frankly it’s based more on adjectives and rhetoric than on facts.

    It’s true that racism is serious. It’s true people often want to pass responsibility to someone else. It’s true that almost anything can be a vector for racism or the blame game. This includes “concern” for overpopulation. People doing this and popular figures like Thanos or Malthus are certainly not doing us any favors. Unfortunately overpopulation is a real problem all on it’s own, all else aside. Contaminating it with racism and us versus them politics just obscures the issue and that is a real problem.

    For my proof of overpopulation as a real problem please see:


    1. The central premise of the article isn’t that concern for overpopulation is due to racism, rather the article seems to simply point out a link between the two, which you seemingly agree with judging by your comment.

      The link you posted contains some spurious assertions. Evidence indicates that the human brain size has decreased since the dawn of our species, but there is no evidence it is due to overpopulation and poverty. Aboriginal Australians, who were isolated for thousands of years and who didn’t have any significant change in their lifestyle till the Europeans came also show a decrease in their brain volume,same as humans elsewhere. This decrease is attributed to lower body mass due to global warming after the last ice age and the fact that members of larger societies, especially ones that transitioned to agriculture, didn’t need to use their brains as much as their forefathers (modern humans are very specialized and know relatively little outside their own field).

      Your comment proves the premise of the author. Western anxiety about overpopulation is founded on their value systems which denigrate the role of families and encourages hedonistic individualism. Eastern/African traditions value large families and the emotional and material support it provides. Not every person wants to live according to Western appetites. If you truly cared about the dwindling of resources, you would focus your time and energy on trying to reign in the excesses of the Western world, rather lecture those who consume far less about having less children.


  2. Here’s the ironic bit: pretend overpopulation WERE a problem, and those in power actually wanted to solve it. Just pretend for a moment. You know what the solution is?

    Reduce economic disparity by redistributing vast wealth more evenly.

    When parents are supported by an economically secure culture – a robust social safety net and adequate income – more families choose to be smaller. First-world nations like Germany and Japan show us that this results in naturally-shrinking populations, absent immigration. No genocide, no coercion.

    So if we improved the socioeconomic well-being of the poorest nations, the world population would naturally plateau and decline. Simply through the application of economic justice.

    I don’t look to see the wealthy endorsing this simple, nonviolent, non-coercive “solution” any time soon.


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